Same problem here, but on Cubase Artist 8.0.40. Happened after Win 10 update which seemed to mess everything up (required subsequent update of e-Licenser and pretty much every major app on my computer).
Hadn’t updated Cubase in a while (was using 8.0.5 until yesterday). Windows auto-updated overnight. The next time I got on the computer there was a message about low disk space (the update had filled ~30GB), so ran disk cleanup utility. After that finished, I went to open Cubase and it reported an error validating license. Opened e-License manager which prompted for update, then re-opened Cubase and had nothing but grey screen and menubar. After messing around I realized I could pull up mixer, track pool, VST connections, etc. using keyboard shortcuts, but no new tracks would appear. Tried to close Cubase and pop-up window came up with message that Cubase has stopped working.
Next day I tried loading one of the template projects which immediately complained about there being no output channels. I reconfigured Cubase to use the right interface (which had been de-selected as the default audio device, presumably by windows update). Now tracks appear but the buttons are screwy (exactly as shown in attachment by OP). Tried updating to Cubase 8.0.40 and no change. Tried re-installing from disk and no change. Cubase also no longer lists Komplete Kontrol when creating new instrument track (though I was able to run MIDI through the keyboard, maybe this requires updating too, but that’s issue I need to take with Native Instruments).