delay compensation matters

Good morning from Greece to all of you Cubasers.
So many parameters with delay compensation that get me frustrated.
I have read the manual and i have searched the net a lot and found quite a few options to do.I have been using c5 for about 4 years and never payed the appropriate attention to the delay matters.So in my queries.
All the examples below were done for experimenting with the delay compensation subjects and not for an actual session,but they are similar to a familiar recording or mixing session.
First my setup:8 gb ram-i3 processor-korg pa50 midi keys-lexicon omega usb interface with asio buffers set to 10 ms-m audio bx5 monitors-and an extrernal 32 channel behringer mixer with 2 units of fx.
i record a sample in an audio track.i create a dummy output in vst connections and make it the output of that sample track.i create a second audio track and set as input the dummy output so as to record the above sample.When record is done i found tha it was 150 samples later recorded than the above.I went to device setup and fixed it by inserting the 150 sampes difference,recorded again and it was ok.If all this process were done with stereo tracks instead of mono one channel of the new recording will be with phase inverted.If i the change the polarity to the input channel only one channel stays again with the normal phase and the is inverted again.
Question :why the phase is inverted and how not to be??How am i supposed to know the samples difference every time if i insert and plugins in the input channel or in the arm recording channel so as to track vocals with my familiar chain,so as to prevent those delays,cause when i inserted plugins the sample difference was greaterbutton
I read the manual and found that setting the delay compensation threshold to a 4 ms for example and then activating the constrain delay compensation ,it bypasses the plugins with delay above the threshold,but the recording is done dry and that is no my purpose,because i am tracking with a mixing view and do not want to fix a lot in the mix.
So i would be grateful if someone show me an actual workflow to prevent all these delay matters.
If i insert midi notes by pencil in a midi clip and then record it in an audio track everything is ok.But if i record simultaneously the midi and the audio by live playing the midi notes ,i found that midi notes are recorded earlier than the audio.In some cases i need both of them in order to change some midi infos let’s say from verse to verse etcHow can i solve that.
I assume that all these delay matters,happen and when mixing.For example:Let’s say that i have a snare track and send it to a convolution reverb and to a delay and i also have some distortion and other plugins inserted.If i print the track is it gonna be synced the raw sound with the inserts and the sends???If is gonna be again the same problem with delays how can i fix that?I read that i should increase the buffer audio setting during mixing.Does this really solves the problem or i have to do more???
All above queries questions and problems happen only in the monitoring process???
It would really be fantastic a clear workflow from one expert for everything that has to do with delay subjects in the daw.
Once i got the 32 mixer from behringer i found a way to monitor outside the box.
Let’s say i track a band.I plug the intrs and mics in the mixer inputs and send them to my aux output wich is sent to my interface’s inputs.The interface outputs are sent back to a channel in my mixer, in order to use the mixer headphone output.That’s ok for a real band.If i need to use some vsti’s what’s done.And furthermore if i insert plugins in the arm recorded channels will it be a delay problem or not???
And finally what is done in real situations in analog staff studios.When a external effect is inserted in the mixer do they have such delay problems ???
And last i read about track delay.What is this and when used???
So many delay delay delay things,please feed me with a workflow to follow.
Thanks for your time and your help.